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The regional energy supply system is mainly built on the power distribution side, and has the characteristics of adapting measures to local conditions, supporting nearby facilities, using nearby materials, and ready-to-use. Whether it was the 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, or the 2012 blackout in Shenzhen, my country, all of them show that there are many hidden dangers in the lack of emergency power sources—distributed energy construction. Even if there is no accident, the burden on the municipal power grid will be too large during peak seasons every year, and the construction of distributed energy systems has the advantage of shaving peaks and filling valleys and alleviating power shortages. After extreme disasters or accidents in the traditional transmission and distribution system, distributed energy can ensure the supply of local basic energy to a certain extent, effectively improve the reliability of energy supply, and improve the security of the entire energy system. Since many remote and rural areas in my country are far away from large power grids, these areas cannot or are very difficult to enjoy the benefits brought by the expansion of large power grid construction scale, because the investment and maintenance costs of long-distance power supply are too high, or some areas do not have the ability to construct due to natural conditions. The condition of centralized power supply network, and distributed power generation can solve these problems well, and bring a new solution to the power supply in underdeveloped areas.
3. The development of distributed energy expects policy support
At present, the development of distributed energy also faces many challenges. According to industry insiders, due to unclear policies and difficulties in implementing policies, distributed energy projects have encountered challenges in terms of reserve capacity, power access methods, government fund reductions and exemptions, and natural gas price discounts. In addition, distributed energy projects are generally new projects, and the initial production rate is often less than 50%. Usually, companies can only make profits when the load utilization rate reaches 60% to 70%. How to realize distributed energy projects in The economy during the incubation period remains to be explored.
Wu Gang, chairman of Xinjiang Goldwind Technology Co., Ltd., said that at the “crossroads” in the development of the wind power industry, decentralized wind power is considered to be the next blue ocean. However, compared with distributed photovoltaics, the approval procedures for distributed wind power projects are more complicated. Most of the distributed energy projects currently implemented are in the form of a combination of two or more energy sources. When the developer goes through the approval procedures, a distributed energy project should be disassembled into multiple sub-items for approval. The subjects, conditions, procedures and processes of acceptance are quite different, resulting in a long approval cycle for the overall project.
Zhang Lei, founder and CEO of Envision, said that the reform of electricity marketization has not yet reflected the core value of distributed clean energy. Distributed power generation cannot be sold to users who need it nearby. Many of them can only be used by themselves, and the surplus can be sold to the grid at a low price or discarded in vain, which is not conducive to the clean utilization of distributed energy and the improvement of energy efficiency. In addition, the cost of grid access is too high and the efficiency needs to be improved. Power grid enterprises still refer to centralized management methods for distributed access, and there is no clear process specification and service standard, and there is no time limit for grid-connected business processing. There is a lack of special research and technical requirements for grid-connected access standards for distributed wind power. Taking a switch station with a cost of nearly 8 million yuan as an example, the cost allocation in a centralized power generation project is not significant, but in a distributed scenario, investors pay too much unnecessary costs.
Therefore, distributed energy needs further support from the state at the policy level. Zhang Dongsheng, secretary general of the China Energy Conservation Association Thermal Power Industry Alliance, believes that due to the high prices of small gas turbines, photovoltaic modules and energy storage systems used in the field of distributed energy, the construction cost of distributed energy is still high. Compared with conventional energy, the economical relatively poor. Without the support of the national fiscal policy, the excessively long payback period will affect investment enthusiasm. Therefore, technology development encouragement, investment encouragement and tax incentives, the macro policies of relevant national departments such as power system reform and thermal system reform, and the regional development policies of local governments are all indispensable external environments for the promotion of distributed energy applications.
In addition to policy support, the development of distributed energy also requires technical support. Due to the natural intermittency and randomness, the grid-connected distributed energy is likely to cause voltage fluctuations and voltage flicker. It is the main challenge to achieve power balance in the distribution network and ensure power supply reliability and power quality.
4. Energy storage and microgrids add new impetus to distributed development
Some energy experts said that to solve the volatility problem of new energy, it is necessary to fully integrate innovative technologies such as energy storage into the microgrid model. Some multinational companies can solve the energy storage problem through advanced technology, and do a better job of smart microgrid and distributed integrated management, so as to solve the problems existing in the development of distributed energy in China from the technical and business models.
The introduction of energy storage equipment in the distributed energy system can effectively achieve demand-side management, reduce the load peak-to-valley difference, and reduce power supply costs, which will bring revolutionary changes to traditional energy consumption methods. Distributed energy systems are inseparable from the assistance of energy storage systems. Taking distributed photovoltaics as an example, although the installed capacity of each unit is not large, a large number will still cause a considerable impact on the power grid. In order to ensure the stability and safety of the power grid, a supporting energy storage device is required for adjustment. In addition, there are thousands of distributed power stations with different power generation at different times and locations. To establish a global energy Internet with free transmission and smart deployment, and to achieve safe and stable power supply, large-scale energy storage technology is essential .
The development and utilization mode of “distributed energy + energy storage” system has received extensive attention, and various countries have issued policies to support it. The sales volume of the State Grid has triggered the phenomenon of “load off-grid” or even “user off-grid”. Promoting the large-scale development of user-side distributed energy plus energy storage can effectively improve the utilization rate of renewable energy and reduce peak load pressure. important means of cost. With the rapid development of energy storage technology and the rapid decline of cost, the economics of distributed energy storage regulation on the user side has been better than the supply side in many cases, and the advantages will become more and more obvious.
Microgrid refers to a small power generation and distribution system composed of distributed power sources, energy storage devices, energy conversion devices, loads, monitoring and protection devices. A microgrid is an autonomous system capable of self-control, protection, and management, and can operate either in connection with an external grid or in isolation. The proposal of microgrid aims to realize the flexible and efficient application of distributed power, and solve the problem of grid connection of a large number and various forms of distributed power. Microgrid has been widely studied in recent years due to its flexible configuration structure and convenient operation mode. It can improve the security and reliability of the power system, improve the quality of power supply for users and the level of grid service, and promote renewable energy. Application of distributed generation.
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